Organizational Change and Stress Management

For many years, the law enforcement organizations have tried to find the
causes, and ways of reducing fear of crime within communities through
creation of successive partnerships among community, private and public
sectors resources, application of problems solving tactics or
strategies, and transformation of organizations and culture. In year
2001, law enforcement agencies in United States found themselves
struggling to outline their responsibilities, as well as defining their
future operations in effort to fight terrorism. New policing model for
homeland security and terrorism must deal with the areas of intelligence
gathering, crime prevention, and information sharing. Some agencies have
argued that the community policing can fit in entire national strategy
for the homeland security, but little research identify
community-policing tactics and their application to national strategy
for the homeland security (Dennis, 2001).
Community-Oriented policing
The Department of Justice in United States defines community policing as
the philosophy, which focuses on social and crime disorder through
delivery of police force services, which includes aspects of
problem-solving, traditional law enforcement, prevention, partnerships,
and community engagement. Despite different definitions of the
community-oriented policing, generally there are three main components
to community policing philosophy. The components include creation of and
dependence on successive partnerships with private/public sector
resources, community, application of the problem-solving tactics, and
transformation of police culture and organization to support this
philosophical change. Community policing is not strategy or tactic, but
it is philosophical approach to the way policing is conducted (Jose,
In one of 2002 publications, United States Department of Justice
discussed a number of the community-oriented policing practices and
resources that apply directly to terrorism prevention and deterrence.
These include use of data analysis and collection protocols, crime
mapping with the GIS systems, as well as technologies, which may be
applied as platforms for collecting intelligence to identify terrorism
vulnerability. Moreover, community partnerships started by police in
course of the community-oriented problem solving offer a ready outline
for engaging people in assisting police to known possible threats as
well as implement preparedness plans (Dennis, 2001).
Matthew C. Scheider and Rob Chapman, senior analysts at Office of the
Community Oriented Policing Services suggested that community policing
might play an important role in homeland security. These two analysts
argued that through application of principles of problem solving,
external partnerships, and organizational change, community policing
could assist police to prevent terrorist acts, and prepare respond to
fear such as threats prompt. Community policing builds trust between law
enforcement and community, which permit officers to build up knowledge
of community activity, and may provide important intelligence connected
to potential terrorist activities. According to Scheider and Chapman,
problem-solving models used in the community policing are suited for
responding and preventing to probable terrorist activity. Through use of
existing information sources, the agencies may conduct target
vulnerability evaluation and develop crisis and risk-management plans
(Mark, 2002).
Community partnerships
Since September 2002, it became obvious that Homeland Security could not
be conducted by the law enforcement alone. Therefore, a successive
Homeland Security strategy should include partnerships outside law
enforcement organizations such as citizens, public health, businesses,
emergency management, and several public and private organizations
participating in terrorism response and prevention. Partnerships should
expand to take advantage of several skills needed to mobilize, plan for,
and respond to the terrorist activities. For Homeland Security, this
meant building trust with Islamic-American and Arab-American
communities, with promise of how the law enforcement may protect them in
their workplaces, public places, neighborhoods, and places of worship.
In most cases, there is misconception that in the community-oriented
policing “a community” is defined through certain geographical
boundaries. Thus, Daniel Flynn suggested that the law enforcement
agencies should look beyond geographical boundaries, and identify groups
or areas with shares characters or common problems. In
community-oriented policing, police are among the many local government
organizations that are responsible for responding to problems of
community. Other government agencies are also included in
community-oriented policing because of their capacities to respond to
social and crime disorder issues. Encouraging citizen involvement in the
programs like youth education, neighborhood watch, as well as other
operations with the law enforcement was recognized to increase social
cohesion amongst citizens and reduce fear of crime. The leadership of
Homeland Security built community partnership through community-oriented
policing and reduced the fear of citizens for terrorist actions (Jose,
Employing Volunteer Resources
After September 11, 2001, events, the concept of involving communities
in crime prevention took new dimension, with President Bush advocating
for greater involvement of citizens in homeland security by initiatives
like Freedom Corps and Citizen Corps. President Bush formed programs
that Americans could participate in homeland security efforts directly
in their communities. The network of the volunteer efforts use
foundations established by the law enforcement to prepare the local
communities to respond to threats of crime and terrorism. Besides
creating Freedom Corps and Citizens Corps, President Bush made plans to
improve community-policing programs in place like Neighborhood Watch
through incorporating terrorism prevention in its mission (Williams,
The community policing encourages use of the non-law enforcement
resources in law enforcement agency like volunteerism, which involves
citizen participation with law enforcement agency. Most of function in
any law enforcement agency may be accomplished by civilian employees or
sworn deputies. The volunteer efforts help free up the officer time, and
permit sworn people to become more prevention-oriented and proactive. In
most of jurisdictions in United States, citizens who have time to
volunteer in community have provides their services to various law
enforcement agencies, releasing law enforcement people to spend a lot of
time in crime reduction. The community-policing element merges well with
Citizen Corps formed by President Bush, which was formed to harness
power of each person through volunteer service, education, and training
to make communities stronger, safer, and well prepared to respond to the
threats of crime, public health issues, disasters of different types,
and terrorism (Mark, 2002).
For the last thirteen years, the community-oriented policing have
function as impetus for the law enforcement agencies to build closer
relationship with communities to identify threats in a community that
form a climate of social and fear disorder. Emphasis in the community
policing on problem solving and community involvement clearly
establishes a strong foundation on which homeland security efforts are
built on. Rather than de-emphasizing the community-oriented policing
efforts, the law enforcement agencies should realize that the a robust
community-oriented policing philosophy in the agency provides a robust
basis for responding and preventing terrorism and its objective of
creating fear in community. The law enforcement should realize that it
efforts are important to the national homeland security. It should also
realize that community-oriented policing might be the most effective
strategy in handling terrorism response and prevention in the community.
Homeland policing model suggests that current community policing model
serve as a successive framework for development of an efficient
prevention strategy for the homeland security by law enforcement
agencies (Williams, 2002).
Dennis J. (2001). “Case Studies in Community Policing.” Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Jose M. (2005). Community Policing as the Primary Prevention Strategy
for Homeland Security at the Local Law Enforcement Level. The Journal of
Naval Postgraduate School.
Mark H. (2002). “Problem Solving and Community Policing: A Preliminary
Assessment of New Strategies of Policing.” The Journal of Modern
Policing Crime and Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Williams L. (2002). “Partnerships, information and public safety:
community policing in a time of terror.” An International Journal of
Police Strategies & Management,” 25, No. 3: 532.