Nursing Theorists Nursing Theorists

The four concepts of the nursing meta-paradigm are related to the
concept of interest. Human being or person is defined as an integrated
whole comprising or an internal psychology, physical as well as the
social nature with varying levels of ability for self care (Mitchell,
Lindberg & Klein, 2000). Health is viewed as the state of being, well,
which is characterized by pleasure, contentment, happiness, and self
ideals. Nursing is considered to be an art that assists the nurse
practitioners in offering specialized health assistance to human beings
who are in the need of assistance beyond the ordinary help to support
them in the process of self care. Environment refers to aspects
surrounding a person, which can affect their capacity to proceed with
self-care. These are the four major concepts of interest to the field of
nursing, which assist the nurse practitioners to view nursing in a
broader perspective. In addition, the interrelationship between the four
concepts of interest represents the unique perspective of the Nursing
The nursing process theory was advanced by Ida Jean Orlando and focuses
on the interaction between the nurse practitioner and the client
validation of perception, and application of nursing process to enhance
the patient’s improvement (Faust, 2002). The main objective of the
theorist was to define the primary function of nursing. Orlando defined
the nursing functions as the art of being responsive to persons who are
suffering or expect a sense of helplessness, a focus on the nursing
process of care in the immediate experience, giving assistance to
persons irrespective their settings, and curing one’s sense of
helplessness. These functions of the nursing are still applicable in the
current nursing environment, especially by the advanced practice nurses.
The perception of the discipline of nursing as an art or science is
still controversial. The artistic component of nursing encompasses the
compassionate and the physical aspects of practice, which requires human
skills as well as practice (Michalis, 2002). Nurses address the unique
nature of their clients in an interactive way that incorporates needs,
wills, knowledge, feelings, and emotions. It is becoming increasingly
important to use the aesthetic approach in defining the nursing goals
because nurses are mandated to meet the basic needs of their clients,
which constitute the concept of nursing as an art. Nightingale (cited in
Michalis, 2002) suggested that the perception of nursing as an art
requires an exclusive devotion and preparation because nurses deal with
living bodies. The healing art of the nursing discipline is the major
element of the virtue of nursing, which makes nursing be defined as an
The science aspect of nursing encompasses the use of data as well as the
evidence-based research to accomplish the basic functions of the nursing
practice. According to Idczak (2007) nurses are required to incorporate
the practice of observation, experience, knowledge, and research in
order to advance the aspects of nursing as a science. This implies that
the concepts of nursing as a science derives from the need to use the
evidence based practice, problem solving skills, and advanced assessment
skills in their professional practice. The science part of nursing
assists practitioners in describing, predicting, explaining, and
controlling the human environment by conducting experiments to test
theories (Luna, Ohshimo & Peguegnat, 2014). This result in the informed
selection of the best course of action using information obtained from
experiments. In overall, the two aspects of nursing as an art and
nursing as a science are important and contribute towards the
enhancement of the effectiveness of the nursing practice.
Faust, C. (2002). Orlando’s deliberative nursing process theory: A
practical application in an extended care facility. Journal of
Gerontological Nursing, 28 (7), 14-18.
Idczak, S. (2007). The art & science of nursing. Adrian, MI: Siena
Height University.
Luna, D., Ohshimo, E. & Peguegnat, V. (2014). Nursing Science. Tangient
LLC. Retrieved February 1, 2014, from HYPERLINK
Michalis, R. (2002). Nursing as an art. Nursing Web Journal. Retrieved
February 1, 2014, from HYPERLINK
Mitchell, S., Lindberg, C. & Klein, D. (2000). Nursing: Meta-paradigm
concepts. Ewing, NJ: The College of New Jersey.