Literature Review Matrix

Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1962). Dimensions of therapist response as
causal factors in therapeutic change Cramer, D., & Takens, R. J. (2007)
Therapeutic relationship and progress in the first six sessions of
individual psychotherapy: A panel analysis Hatcher, R. L., & Barends, A.
W. (1996). Patients` view of the alliance in psychotherapy: Exploratory
factor analysis of three alliance measures Horvath, A. O., & Symonds, B.
(1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy:
A meta-analysis
Hypotheses
There are two hypotheses in the research: (a) that each relationship
factor as measured after five interviews would significantly predict the
indices of change, and that these predictions would be stronger when the
relationship was measured from client perceptions than when it was
measured from therapist perceptions and, (b) that results for two
matched, “equivalent” groups of clients, with relatively “expert” and
“non-expert” therapists would reveal that cases with experts give higher
scores on each relationship measure and show evidence of greater change
than the cases with non-experts. There is a positive correlation between
client-rated therapist empathy and acceptance
and both client-and therapist-assessed therapeutic progress. How the
patients view the alliance in person-centered therapy affects the
effectiveness of therapeutic sessions. It was hypothesized in the study
that working alliances in person centered therapy affect therapeutic
outcome.
Research Design
The recruitment and selection of research participants followed the
ethics in research and also the rules of the Counselling Center for the
University of Chicago. The research participants were first given brief
of the purpose of the research, they were asked to sign a proof that
they participated voluntarily. They were assured that the data will only
be used solely in the research and for other purposes. The therapists
were first approached for referrals as to which patients would most
likely participate in the research. The patients were the approach
individually in order to explain the purpose of the research. After
agreeing to participate, the patients were given the survey forms for
the to fill up. Patients who were undergoing person centered therapy
were first identified and were asked if they could participate in the
research. Those who agreed to participate were then asked to fill-up
survey forms. All participants were assured the confidentiality of their
answers. The research utilized both online and library references in
order to obtain enough secondary data. On the online search, key words
related to person centered therapy were used to do web search. The
results of the web search were then assessed based from the exclusion
criteria.
Sampling
The research was able to obtain a total of 63 participants. 42 of which
were clients in the Counselling Center of the University of Chicago and
the remaining 21 are therapists from the same institution. The research
sampled 37 clients treated in psychoanalytic and person-centred therapy
by 37 experienced therapists. The research was able to obtain 231
patients undergoing person centered therapy. The research utilized
information from previous study (it is a secondary research). It used 20
distinct data sets as exclusion criteria for the related works.
Variables
(i.e. independent, dependent, mediating, moderating, control)
Indices of change, Client perception, and Expertise of therapists
Client-rated therapist empathy and acceptance
and extent of therapeutic progress The three alliance measures which
includes the Confident Collaboration and Idealized Relationship, and
the patients` estimate of improvement Quality of the working alliance
(WA) and the therapeutic outcome.
Instrumentation
(i.e. single question, scale/group of questions, records, observation)
Relationship Inventory, survey forms, and interviews Survey forms and
therapeutic sessions records. The survey forms used scales which
measured the client’s empathy and acceptance of the therapist, the
survey also elicited information on the client’s perceived therapeutic
progress. The survey forms contained scale type questions which aim to
assess the therapist – client relationship. The extent of therapeutic
progress was also obtained the therapist’s records so that the two
variables may be correlated. The research used survey forms which
elicited information from the clients on how they view the three
alliances – particularly its effect on the therapeutic sessions that
they undergo. Their perceived therapeutic improvement was also elicited
through the survey form. The research used 20 distinct data sets as
exclusion criteria for the related works. All data on these related
works which passed through this exclusion criteria were included in the
study.
Data Collection
The data was collected using surveys and interviews The data was
collect d using survey forms. T The data collected from the survey forms
are the alliance measures The data were collected from past works or
researches (secondary data gathering)

Data Analysis
The two principal hypotheses were essentially confirmed throughout, by
the results obtained, for four of the measured variables of
relationship. While the result of the interview where analyzed straight
forward using basic statistics (number of similar responses for each
survey question), the interview results were analyzed using content
analysis. The data obtained in the survey forms and the therapists’
records where analyzed using cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) and
linear structural relationships (LISREL). These two analysis methods are
used to determine correlation and association between variables. The
data were analyzed using linear regression analysis, at p <0.001 the
(rs) values of each of the three alliance measures was also computed.
The relationship between the two variables was determined using
meta-analytic procedures. These procedures rated the relationship
between the two variables as weak, moderate, and strong.
Findings
The research made two major findings which are in accordance with the
two hypothesis: that each relationship factor as measured after five
interviews would significantly predict the indices of change, and that
these predictions would be stronger when the relationship was measured
from client perceptions than when it was measured from therapist
perceptions and that results for two matched, “equivalent” groups of
clients, with relatively “expert” and “non-expert” therapists would
reveal that cases with experts give higher scores on each relationship
measure and show evidence of greater change than the cases with
non-experts. Both session 2 therapist empathy and acceptance were
positively associated with session 6 therapist-rated progress,
thereby providing some support for the therapeutic role of these two
therapist variables as postulated by person-centred theory. Out of the
three alliances, the collaborative working alliance should be given
prominence in alliance theory and measurement. Moreover, the two
alliance measures: Confident Collaboration and Idealized Relationship
are found to be positively correlated to the patients’ view of
therapeutic progress. The major finding in the research was that a
moderate but reliable association between good WA and positive therapy
outcome existed. This means that the quality of the WA was most
predictive of treatment outcomes based on clients` assessments, less so
of therapists` assessments, and least predictive of observers` report.
Literature Review Matrix
Horvath, A. O., Del Re, A. C., Flückiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011).
Alliance in individual psychotherapy Lipkin, S. (1954). Clients`
feelings and attitudes in relation to the outcome of client-centered
therapy Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, M. (2000). Relation of
the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: A
meta-analytic review
Hypotheses
The effect of therapeutic session is affected by the client’s
perceptions of the alliances in person-centered therapy. The patient’s
attitude affects the outcomes of therapeutic treatment in
person-centered therapy. That is, the patterns of feelings which the
client holds toward himself, the patterns of attitudes which he exhibits
toward the therapist and his perception of the treatment process bear a
relationship to eventual outcome of therapy. A significant majority of
the past literature will prove that a patient’s knowledge and
attitude towards the alliance in person centered therapy has a
relationship with the outcome of therapeutic treatment. That is, a
positive attitude towards the alliance will contribute positively to the
result of the therapy.
Research Design
The research performed internet research as well as library research
for related literatures. Exclusion criteria were used in order to select
the references which are of use to the research. Following the ethics
rules in research, clients who are undergoing person centered therapy
were identified and were asked if they are willing to participate as
survey respondents for the research. Each were given brief overview of
the purpose and nature of the research. They were also assured that the
information that they will provide will only be used according to the
purposes of the research. Online libraries were searched for related
literatures on person centered therapy. Keywords related to person
centered therapy were used for the online search. The online libraries
were used only after getting approval from their owners and
administrators, to whom the purpose of the research was also made known.
Sampling
The research utilized secondary information from over 200 research
reports based on 190 independent data sources, covering more than 14,000
treatments.  A total of 20 clients undergoing person centered therapy
where selected as samples for the research. An online and library
search of the most current related studies in the field of person
centered therapy, particularly those relating to alliance and efficacy
of therapeutic treatment was conducted. The result of the search for
related literature is the accumulation of 79 studies (58 published, 21
unpublished)
Variables
(i.e. independent, dependent, mediating, moderating, control)
“alliance,” “therapeutic alliance,” “helping alliance,” or “working
alliance” were considered as independent variables while the
therapeutic treatment outcomes were the dependent variables. Client’s
attitude towards the therapists, therapeutic treatment, and the eventual
outcome of the therapy. The clients knowledge and attitude towards the
alliances and the results of the therapeutic treatment
Instrumentation
(i.e. single question, scale/group of questions, records, observation)
The research used the following exclusion criteria in order to identify
the past studies which data could be of use for the current research:
 the sampled research participants for the past studies should be 5 or
more adult participants receiving genuine therapeutic treatments. The
research used a self-rate survey form for clients to elicit their
respective attitudes, and the eventual outcome of the therapeutic
treatment. A secondary research was conducted.
Data Collection
All data pertaining to the effects of therapeutic treatments and their
correlations and relationship with the alliances in person centered
therapy were obtained from past studies which passed through the
exclusion criteria. The self-rated attitudes of the patients and the
eventual therapeutic outcome served as the main data collected through
the survey forms. Accordingly, those who were willing to participate in
the research were given the survey forms to be filled-up. The pertinent
information from the selected literatures was selected using
meta-analytical procedures 79 related studies were identified and used.
Data Analysis
A meta-analysis was performed on the data. Note that All analyses were
done using the assumptions of a random model The attitudes and
corresponding likeability of having a successful therapeutic treatment
were identified based form the result of the survey. The information
derived from the related literatures was then analyzed using metal
analysis.
Findings
The statistical probability associated with the aggregated relation
between alliance and outcome is p < .0001. The overall aggregate
relation between the alliance and treatment outcome (adjusted for sample
size and non-independence of outcome measures) was r = .275 (k = 190)
the 95% confidence interval for this value was .25–.30. What this
means is that there is a significant positive relationship between the
“alliances” and therapeutic treatment outcome A major finding in the
research is that the greater the acceptance of the counseling
experience, the less pressed the client seemed to be to express his
reactions to the therapist, to communicating with the therapist, to
evaluate the therapeutic process, etc. That is, the patterns of
feelings which the client holds toward himself, the patterns of
attitudes which he exhibits toward the therapist and his perception of
the treatment process bear a relationship to eventual outcome of therapy
Research findings include that, the overall relation of therapeutic
alliance with outcome is moderate, but consistent, regardless of many of
the variables that have been posited to influence this relationship, and
that across most alliance scales, there seems to be no difference in the
ability of raters to predict outcome. Moreover, the relation of alliance
and outcome does not appear to be influenced by other moderator
variables, such as the type of outcome measure used in the study, the
type of outcome rater, the time of alliance assessment, the type of
alliance rater, the type of treatment provided, or the publication
status of the study