Individual Blood Disorders

Individual Blood Disorders
Blood is a composition of different cellular components and liquid
medium whose main role is to transport substances (such as oxygen and
nutrients) to different parts of the body. Blood disorders occur if any
of the main components (including red blood cells, white blood cells,
platelets, and plasma) is infected (Zelman et al., 2010). This paper
will provide a discussion of three of the blood disorders, namely the
iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell, and thrombocytopenia. The
discussion will focus on the purpose of different blood components,
causes, symptoms, and prevention strategies for the three disorders.
Iron deficiency anemia
The iron deficiency anemia is a blood condition that develops following
a significant reduction or deficiency of hemoglobin or healthy red blood
cells (Chen, 2013). This condition is characterized by insufficient
supply of oxygen to different parts of the body because the hemoglobin,
which is lacking, is responsible for transportation of oxygen in the
body. The iron deficiency anemia can be caused by excessive loss of
blood, production of faulty red blood cells, or destruction of healthy
red blood cells. In the case of Lily (in the case study) the anemic
condition may have resulted from significant decrease or production of
faulty red blood cells due to the consumption of a diet that lacks iron
and rapid growth spurts (Zelman et al., 2010).
The symptoms presented in the case are (such as feeling tired and pale
skin) correct, but there are other important symptoms that checked,
including headache, brittle nails, feeling grumpy, blue coloration of
the white parts of the eye. However, it is possible that Lily had only
developed the two symptoms because anemia progress with time and the
rest of the symptoms will be expected to appear with time.
A diet rich in iron (such as lean meat, vegetables, fruits, and nuts) is
the most option for prevention of occurrence of iron deficiency anemia.
In addition, Lily should be given food with nutrients that support the
absorption of iron, which include fruits that are rich in vitamin C.
Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia is a disorder that results from the production of
crescent-shaped red blood cells. Consequently, the hemoglobin component
of red blood cells assumes the sickle shape, which reduces its oxygen
binding capacity (WebMD LLC, 2014). In addition, the sickle cells are
sticky and stiff, which makes them block the blood vessels. This causes
pain, infections, and organ damage.
The sickle cell anemia is caused by a genetic mutation that affects the
genes coding for the production of hemoglobin. This condition is not
contagious and it is mainly acquired through inheritance. This means
that a child with the sickle cell disorder must have inherited a sickle
hemoglobin gene from the father and another one from the mother (WebMD
LLC, 2014). A child who inherits a single sickle hemoglobin gene
acquires sickles cell traits or becomes a carrier. In the case of Davon
(case study), there is a possibility of him being a career if the father
is normal or having the sickle cell disease if the father is also a
carrier, but on condition that he inherited the two sickle hemoglobin
genes from both parents.
Although there are no symptoms given in the case study, if Davon has a
sickle cell anemia he would be expected to feel severe pain in the back,
arms, legs, and chest, blockage of blood vessels in the liver and
spleen, joint pain and severe infections (WebMD LLC, 2014).
Once inherited sickle cell anemia disease cannot be prevented, but the
severity of the crisis caused by the disease can be reduced. Diagnosis
of couples before engaging in reproductive sex is the only available
precaution for sickle cell anemia. Crisis can be prevented through
regular examination, vaccination against infections, and avoiding tasks
that can subject the body to high demand for oxygen.
Thrombocytopenia is a blood condition that is characterized by the
reduction of blood platelets count below the normal level of 140-400 / l
(Mehta, 2013). Blood platelets are mainly involved in reducing the loss
of blood by clamping or forming plugs in the injured parts of the body
(Zelman et al., 2010).
There are two conditions that cause a reduction in blood platelets,
including the inability of the bone marrow to produce enough platelets,
an increase in the rate of platelet breakdown within the blood stream or
in the spleen. The bone marrow loses its capacity to produce enough
platelets after an infection, deficiency of vitamin B 12,
myelodysplasia, or cirrhosis (Mehta, 2013).
The symptoms that Spencer is experiencing, especially the bruises, are
just a few of the symptoms of a severe thrombocytopenia condition. Other
symptoms that Spencer is likely to develop include mouth and gum
breeding, nose bleeding, and rashes (Mehta, 2013).
The strategies used in the prevention of thrombocytopenia depend on its
underlying cause. Taking a bed rest prevents the occurrence of trauma,
thus providing an opportunity for platelet product an increase to the
normal level (Zelman et al., 2010). Severe cases of thrombocytopenia can
be corrected through transfusion of platelets.
In conclusion, the three blood disorders considered in the present study
occur through destruction, underproduction, or genetic mutation of blood
components. The symptoms presented in the three cases are just a few,
but there many signs and symptoms that can be used in diagnosing blood
disorders. Apart from sickle cell anemia, the other two conditions
(iron deficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia) can be prevented.
Chen, Y. (2013). Anemia. Bethesda: National Center for Biotechnology
Mehta, A. (2013). Thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet count). Net Doctor.
Retrieved January 17, 2014, from HYPERLINK
WebMD LLC (2014). Pain management: Sickle cell disease. WebMD. Retrieved
January 17, 2014, from HYPERLINK
Zelman, M., Tompary, E., Raymond, P., Holdaway, P. & Mulvihill, M.
(2010). Human diseases: A systemic approach. Upper Saddle River:
Prentice Hall.