Indian-Pakistan conflict

A conflict is the difference through which people, parties and countries
concerned recognize it as a menace to their interests, needs or
concerns. This paper examines the conflict between Pakistan and India
which has lasted for several decades. This conflict is of the unique
nature due to the fact that the two nations formed one state before the
various socioeconomic, political and religious dynamics separated them.
In spite of this separation, the conflict has persisted although, at
present, it has significantly reduced to territorial differences. I
chose this conflict since I have immense on the issue and involves
non-US cultures.
Causes of the conflict
The conflict between these two countries emanated from different
religious beliefs. Majority of Pakistanis is Muslims whereas, most
Indians are Hindus but with few Muslims and Sikhs. The partition of the
two countries resulted in brutal riots as people were being moved.
Numerous Muslims moved from the present India to Pakistan while Hindus
migrated from the present Pakistan to India (McLeod, 2008). This
Conflict has persisted over authority of Kashmir and Jammu which were
once independent states. This has been influenced by the belief of many
Pakistanis, who still claim that it is a component of Pakistan since it
is largely of Muslim population. India claims that it is part of India
since it decided to connect the country in 1947 (Lyon, 2008).
In addition, the conflict between India and Pakistan has been affected
by other factors. During the separation of 1947, which formed sovereign
India and Pakistan, Bengal was torn on the basis of religion (McLeod,
2008). Bengal is the most Muslims populated city in the eastern side and
became the East Pakistan. In the western side, it consists mostly of
Hindu, and it became a part of the state in India which is called West
Bengal. This partition followed a civil war where India supported the
Bengali against Pakistani regime forces. The East Pakistan became a
sovereign country, called Bangladesh. People in both West Bengal and
Bangladesh are Bengali since they belong to the same region by ethnicity
and language. Differences arise due to nationality as citizens of
Bangladesh are called Bangladeshis. The enduring conflict has existed
since independence. Pakistan has adopted a major foreign policy which
does not compromise Muslim state control from India (Braithwaite, 2010).
The political leaders are liable to stand firm on territorial issues
with the aim to uphold support from their home countries. These
territorial rivalries seem to continue between the two countries. The
alliance politics between these countries have stemmed for long.
The road to end the enduring conflicts between India and Pakistan
requires a third party intervention that will lead to peace building.
The geopolitical rivalries from leadership and power status may come to
an end when significant changes occur in the balance of capabilities or
when a common enemy emerges. Many major long-term rivalries in history
have ended as a result of an increased gap in the opponent capabilities.
For example, the end of East –West rivalry and the cold war were
basically due initiatives of Gorbachev, who utilized the Soviet
Union’s economic downfall to instigate drastic changes. This means
that when either of the two countries gets more abilities than the
other, the rivalry will come to an end. In addition, the cost incurred
during wars may contribute significantly to the resolution of conflict
(Lyon, 2008). This becomes applicable when two countries are forced to
negotiate when the conflict becomes economically intolerable. This is
further enhanced by enthusiastic leaders, who get engaged in diplomatic
meetings, in the quest to end the conflict. In the India-Pakistan case,
the role of super powers and party strategies are barriers to the
everlasting resolution. In addition, the increased personality of the
asymmetric power relationship has been reinforced by the custody of
nuclear weapons by the two states. However, structural changes may help
end the rivalry. United States and China have transformed the Pakistan
stand that has resulted in the enhanced relations with India (Kaninsky &
Long, 2011). These changes have helped change the Perceptions of rivals
hence encouraging peace talk between the two countries. In the recent
years, economic changes have started to affect the power asymmetry
between Pakistan and India. India has had a fast economic growth which
has widened the asymmetry in terms of economic capabilities. On the
other hand, Pakistan has had poor economic growth characterized by loans
from the International Monetary Fund and aids from the United States.
This may lead to the end of rivalry as Pakistan may not have the ability
to acquire weapon due to the poor economy. Furthermore, this will allow
India to focus more on its economic success (Braithwaite, 2010).
The persistent conflict between India and Pakistan has existed in
several decades. This has resulted in many deaths, poor economy and
political instability in both countries due to warfare. The origin of
the conflict between these two countries has been influenced by diverse
religion, political powers and foreign political influence. Certain
changes to alter the two states’ power positions have radically led to
conflict dynamics. Since Pakistan-Indian conflict encompasses both
geopolitical positioning and territorial conflict, a further widening of
the gap in capabilities between the defender and the challenger will be
significant for a total termination of the conflict. This will take time
on the side of the defender to sustain its economy and military growth.
The termination of the conflict will enhance good interstate relations,
Political stability and enhanced economic growth between India and
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Consequence. Burlington: Ashgate Publishers
Kaninsky, A. and Long, R. (2011). In India Today: An Encyclopaedia of
Life in The Republic. Santa Barbara: Calif
Lyon, P. (2008) Conflict Between India and Pakistan: an Encyclopaedia.
Santa Barbara: Calif
McLeod, D (2008). India and Pakistan: Friends, Rivals or Enemies?
Burlington: Ashgate Publishers