Every country has an origin myth or a creation myth, which is the account individuals are taught of how the country came into realization. The United States started with Columbus` discovery of America and persisted with the settlement by courageous Pilgrims, won its freedom from England through the American Era, and then developed westward until it turned into the massive, rich nation seen at present. The origin myth eliminates three major facts about the confinement and development of the United States as a country. Those details illustrate that white supremacy is essential to the roots of the nation.
Organized White Supremacist sectors in the United States emerged from their historic roots of past predecessors Ku Klux Klan as well as neo-Nazi organizations (Berlet and Vysotsky, “Overview of U.S. White Supremacist”, 11). As time passed, these groups disseminated into various competing ideologies and made up of what others have widely called the “radical right” (Berlet and Vysotsky, “Overview of U.S. White Supremacist”, 11). These groups have a lot of differences nonetheless there are various common components all throughout their boundaries from which certain facets are chosen. A white-racist counterculture is made up of the Ku Klux Klan, the culture of White Power, National Socialism, and racist skinheads, conspiracism, anti-Semitism, and White Separatism (Berlet and Vysotsky, “Overview of U.S. White Supremacist”, 12).
Research Questions
In exploring the topic on ideological approaches among white supremacist, the following questions will serve as guides:
1. What are some of the most recognized white supremacist groups and their objectives?
2. How did the white supremacist groups start their operations and are they menaces to the society?
Purpose Statement
This paper aims to explore and uncover the various ideological approaches among white supremacist. In addition, this paper is going to present the roots and objectives of white supremacist groups. Lastly, this paper seeks to determine whether white supremacist groups are menaces or advantageous to the society.
Literature Review
White supremacy is the notion and promotion of the idea that whites are more superior compare to individuals coming from other racial ethnicities and that the whites should economically, politically, and publicly control non-whites (Ferber, “Of Mongrels”, 193). Varied types of white supremacy have different conceptions of who is recognized as white and diverse white supremacist determines a number of groups as the main enemy.
Racist skinheads are considered to be the most dangerous radical-right threats confronting the law enforcement (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 1). Men and women who are members of this group are products of violent and criminal subculture and are usually imbued with neo-Nazi beliefs regarding Jews, homosexuals, blacks, and others (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 1). Skinheads are usually organized into small groups of individuals that tend to move around without warning. The group travels and performs demonstrations across America and this has been problematic to the law enforcement because of conspiracies and crimes that go along with the demonstrations. These organizations promote “conventional values” classify people into “in groups” as well as “out groups” in accordance to their religion, race, or nationality and delegitimize the out group. Political organizations try to conquer the administration and they disseminate their message by dispersing literature as well as organizing rallies.
The skinhead movement started in the Midwest and in Texas in the early 80s. This violent and racist subculture has expanded in various states and has authored a number of vicious hate crimes including assault, arson, and murder (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 2). Compared to the Klan, the skinhead culture is not native to America. Skinhead gangs are a global phenomenon that haunts major towns and cities particularly in Australia, Austria, Argentina, and America (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 2). The existence of internet has enabled the group to easily communicate with each other and organize in ways that were not done during 60s and the 70s. To expand their objectives, white supremacists use the media. Media attention is critical for modern social movements in which the leaders must confront the challenge of developing and controlling coverage. The internet signifies one of the newest and most available media outlets. Websites act as an introduction to a certain group to offer legitimacy as well as access to wide resources for those that are already members (Adams, “White Supremacists and the World Wide Web”, 762). Despite the fact that the whites have the lowest racial alienation, white supremacist groups persist to form grievance through white oppression (Adams, “White Supremacists and the World Wide Web”, 762). Citing policies including affirmative action and the inability to state pride in racial heritage, and progresses created by civil rights organizations, white supremacist organizations ventured on the perception that whites are unlawfully vilified and at a social disadvantage (Adams, “White Supremacists and the World Wide Web”, 762).
By depending on the conflicting criteria of ideology, certain organizational affiliation, and a unique youth subculture, the leading typologies of White Supremacist groups involve in overgeneralization, while at the same time focusing on unique organizations as well as subcultures (Berlet and Vysotsky, “Overview of U.S. White Supremacist”, 16). In the leading typologies, Neo-Nazi groups can encompass those with a secular political orientation or forms such as Odinism or Christian Identity. As a matter of fact, it could be contended that virtually, any White Supremacist group may be classified as Neo-Nazi as an outcome of the historical effect of the Nazi party (Berlet and Vysotsky, “Overview of U.S. White Supremacist”, 17). The Neo-Nazi is common in past typologies and closely resembles the influence of Nazi political philosophy.
In the United States, white supremacy was first used to embody European immigrants. After several years, it was changed and massively expanded. Scholars traced the influential American argument for minorities to Young yet hold that it was LouisWirth`s landmark definition. Religious white supremacist groups promote a spiritual belief system as well as urge their members and advocates to practice the religions (Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi, “Critical Events”, 500). These groups utilize religion to give good reason for their chauvinistic philosophy and are led by organizers with religious designations. Such organizations created the world into good (whites) versus evil (nonwhites and Jews) and consider that an apocalyptic combat is foreseeable (Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi, “Critical Events”, 500).
In 2008, when Barack Obama won the Presidential election, it was the first that a democratic candidate captured the hearts of Americans (Taylor, “Racial Polarization”, 118). Political white supremacist organizations promote neo-Nazi ideology and support an authoritarian administration. The National Alliance, for instance, is an organization that aims to replace the administration with a national socialist government (Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi, “Critical Events”, 502). Even though spirituality was emphasized by William Pierce through his development of Cosmotheism, faith in it was not demanded. The National Alliance stresses Aryan superiority from an evolutionary standpoint. The group claims that Jews prevent Aryans from achieving their evolutionary destiny by promoting non nonwhite immigration as well as multicultural policies (Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi, “Critical Events”, 502).
Youth-cultural white supremacist organizations emphasize subcultural associations that encompass listening to hate rock as well as black metal music, putting on a certain manner of clothes, and presenting Nazi as well as white supremacist symbols (Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi, “Critical Events”, 501). From the time Adolf Hitler rose to supremacy, the Nazis implemented their vision of a biologically and racially genuine Reich. Individuals who were not part of the Nazi dream were regarded as problem. Those individuals were set to become the prey of an erratic and illogical twist of more deep-seated answers. Everything started with isolation and harassment and ended up in systematic and brutal killings of millions of individuals. To uphold the supposed strength and purity of a claimed `master race`, the Nazis pursued to eliminate or execute exclusionary separation upon “asocial and degenerate groups that involved: Romani, blacks, Jews, homosexuals, the mentally and physically handicapped, political opponents, and Jehovah`s Witnesses. Anti-Semitism is about hatred, prejudice, and discrimination and is against the Jewish people. Adolf Hitler`s compulsive hatred for Jews was triggered by his involvements after the First World War when Hitler believed that races have different biological make-up (Berlet and Vysotsky, “Overview of U.S. White Supremacist”, 17).
In studying the ideological approaches of white supremacist, several peer reviewed journals were gathered. Specifically, the journals were beneficial in providing supporting details to the research questions. For instance, in exploring the different white supremacist groups, Potok made an intelligence report about Skinheads in the United States in which, along with his colleagues, Potok discussed the objectives of the group and how they continually expand through the use of the internet. In the same way, Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi performed a study about the crucial events in the life paths of white supremacist. Adams and Roscigno performed a textual analysis about the varied forms of media and internet and how they help spread the words of the white supremacist organizations. To further enhance the point in the use of media, Weatherby discussed how websites are used to persuade individuals to join the organization.
To examine the behaviour of white supremacists, a social psychological model was used by Arena and Arrigo. The use of this model emphasized the intrapsychic, the situational dynamics, as well as the interpersonal aspect at work in the everyday functioning of the white supremacists. Berbrier made use of comparison in an attempt to discuss the three distinct groups to substitute a stigmatized status. Pet Simi discusses how the present neglect of violence committed by the white supremacist obstructs the evolution of terrorism scholarship. Ferber explored the discrimination confronted by the Jews and other races that differed from the whites. The data gathered from these sources were compiled to form a coherent research on the ideology of white supremacists.
The origin of United States` white supremacy or racism lies in developing economic exploitation through human labor and stealing of resources and then explaining the abuse by strengthening the inferiority of the victims (Berbrier, “Minority Groups”, 555). The first use of racism or White Supremacy by the Euro-Americans who managed the United States` society was in opposition to native individuals (Berbrier, “Minority Groups”, 555). Blacks were originally slaves who were abused through being made as laborers. Mexicans come next who lost their way of survival when their land holdings were gone and they, too, became wage-laborers. White supremacy as well as economic power was born alongside each other. Discrimination became rampant. Discrimination encompasses sexism, racism, ageism, as well as dislike for other`s ethnicity, religion, or nationality (Ferber, “Of Mongrels and Jews”, 198). In the United States, majority of discrimination is rooted on ethnic and racial discrimination such as the Hispanics and the Blacks.
Potok unraveled the historical origin of the skinheads including its music. The skinhead style first developed as part of a multiracial and a non-racist scene (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 3). White skinheads took on the persona that mirrored admiration for as well as kinship with a new generation of working-class West Indian immigrants into the United Kingdom (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 3). Indeed, in this article, Potok emphasized that skinheads are menaces in the society because they were responsible for crimes and other brutalities that happened in many states in America. Through the use of online sources and internet, the group has expanded its operations and its organizations. The most significant skinhead group in raising the American movement`s profile was CASH or the Chicago Area Skin Heads which created national headlines when they assaulted six Hispanic women, swastikas marked on three synagogues, and a number of vandalism incidents in Jewish-owned business(Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 4). The leader of the group was an ex-convict named Martell. Prior to incarceration, Martell was able to gather 200 members and during his execution 11 years later, the group already had 3000 members (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 5). Tom Metzger was one of the persons behind the growth of skinheads. Metzger is a longtime leader of the White Aryan Resistance that was involved in the murder of Mulugeta Seraw, an Ethiopian immigrant. This simply proved that the skinheads were filled with brutality. In the 80s and 90s, skinhead assaults black men in Birmingham and in Arlington, Texas (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 5). Involved in this brutality are the Hammerskins, a confederation of skinheads established in Dallas in 1987 (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 5). The Hammerskin Nation established itself as the strongest and most authoritative skinhead organization in America during the 90s. The group was able to direct 30 chapters and ran a record label and website (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 5). The Vinlanders, on the contrary, are more violent and can take orders from anyone. Vinlanders are considered to be the future of a more decentralized skinhead scene (Potok, “Skinheads in America”, 6).
There were also domestic extremist groups such as the Aryan Barbarian. This organization was led by Gliebe who later fired Billy Roper, deputy membership Coordinator, and consequently, the latter formed the White Revolution (Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi, “Critical Events”, 507). PEN1 has also grown as one of the biggest skinhead organizations in America with its goals including able leadership, ongoing criminal undertakings, internal cohesion, as well as political opportunism (Freilich, Chermak, and Caspi, “Critical Events”, 507). The growth of hate-oriented websites has taken roots from a number of conditions. The internet is a cheap and effective tool for distributing organizational propaganda to a mass audience. Furthermore, websites act as catalogues for hate groups offer a forum for conversation through Email and chatrooms which have allowed racist organizations to distribute their content to visitors on websites and to those who have already been converted (Adams, “White Supremacists and the World Wide Web”, 763).
According to Arena and Arrigo (“White Supremacist Behaviour”, 223), the white supremacist behaviour is based on the group`s desire for power, domination, and authority. One fundamental facet of this complex construct is the number of sources from which the organizations draw their power including positional power or authority information and expertise coercive power alliances and networks control of agendas and access framing and personal power (“White Supremacist Behaviour”, 223).
White supremacists have been linked to violence, terrorism and other forms of racism and discrimination. White Supremacist groups have been around since 18[th] era and continued to persist until the time of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Group. It is the objective of the White Supremacist to oppress those who do not belong to the white race and have the latter reign supreme over all other races in the land.
Conventional researches of the white supremacy organization approach views white supremacy as representative of the white male interests. The organization is described as both anti-semitic and racist and perceived from a race association approach. Historians, journalists, and sociologists have tried to elucidate who the members are and the factors explain why these members joined. Activities were documented and most of it accounted for augmenting or reducing the power as well as popularity at several historical junctures and in several social contexts. Terrorism, bombings, and other horrific events were all linked to white supremacy. It is generally taken for granted that the movement signifies the interests of a sector of the white population, and promotes violence and hatred against the Jews, blacks, and other non-white groups. The concept that a group of individuals would want to be distinguished as a minority would postulate claim that are neither of historical constant nor a cultural universal constant. Although some White Supremacists did not succeed in meeting their objectives, the group members of the organization continue to increase in number due to the presence of media and online resources. Further, as the group expands, law enforcement authorities are also finding it increasingly difficult to combat the group and avert all forms of crimes and brutalities.
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