History of National Parks in USA Acadia National Park

Acadia National Park can be found in Maine, USA. According to Prins and McBride (2007), Wabanaki people were the original settlers in Acadia National Park. Landscape architect Charles Eliot is the person behind the design of the park. Charles W., the president of Harvard and Charles` father, together with George B. Dorr, the father of Acadia National Park, sustain the idea through donations of land and sponsorship. On July 8, 1916, it managed to have a federal status and was recognized as Sieur de Monts National Monument by President Woodrow Wilson. It became a national park on February 26, 1919, in memory of the leading supporter of the American Revolution Marquis de Lafayette and it was given the name of Lafayette National Park. For 18 years, starting from 1915 to 1933, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. supported the construction and the design of the park (Brown, 1995). Its name was changed to Acadia National Park as a tribute to the French colony of Acadia, located at Maine on January 19, 1929.
Bryce Canyon National Park
Bryce Canyon National Park was to be found in southwestern Utah, USA. The Mormon pioneers first lived in the area in 1850s. Artifacts from the basket maker Anasazi, Pueblo-period Anasazi and the Fremont culture was found and supported the idea that the area was inhabited for at least 10, 000 years. It was named in honor of Ebenezer Bryce who lived in the Bryce Canyon in 1974 (Kiver, 1999). Bryce Canyon is not a canyon but a group of enormous amphitheaters. To have an easy overview of the amphitheaters a road was built in 1923 (Summer, 2005). It was selected as a National Park in 1928. The over logging and overgrazing became the reason to have started a movement protecting the area. With this reason, the Utah Parks Company sold the ownership of the land to the federal government in 1923. On February 25, 1928, the land`s name was changed to Bryce Canyon National Park (Kiver, 1999).
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
According to Popular Science, 1932, Jim White discover the cavern and gave names to the caves, to use his own examples, such as Big Room, New Mexico Room, Kings Palace, Queens Chamber, Papoose Room, Green Lake Room, the Totem Pole, Witch`s Finger, Giant Dome, Bottomless Pit, Fairyland, Iceberg Rock, Temple of the Sun, and Rock of Ages according to the formation. It was named after the Czech town known as Carlsbad which means “Charles` Bath”. On October 25, 1923, the Carlsbad Cave National Monument was created and was proclaimed by President Calvin Coolidge. He signed an executive order 3984 on April 2, 1924 for a national park. After 4 years on May 3, another executive order (4870) was issued to support the previous one for possible monument. An act of the US congress was released on May 14, 1930. Carlsbad Caverns National Park was founded under the power of Secretary of the Interior and National Park Service. President Herbert Hoover gave an Executive Order 5370 on June 17, 1930, which states the classification for additional land. The Carlsbad Caverns Wilderness with National Parks and Recreation Act (95-625) were created and was signed by President Jimmy Carter on November 10, 1978.
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
Another National Park in USA is Black Canyon of the Gunnison. It is in Western Colorado and was taken care of the National Park Service. You can find three entrances in this National Park and one entrance is thirty seven miles east of Montrose. The other entrances are fifteen miles east of Montrose at the south of Crawford. This National Park has the remarkable part of the canyon of the Gunnison River (Athearn, 1977).
There are several different races that saw the canyon existence and the Ute Indians know this before the Europeans. Spaniards had two expeditions after the US independence during 1776. Denver and Rio Grande had extended Gunnison in 1881. The canyon completed its union to Salt Lake City in 1883.the route through Black Canyon was taken for granted when the Glenwood Springs was established as alternative route in 1890 wan was neglected in 1955 The canyon was use as a way to Utah by railroad and visitors and became a recreational area. On March 2, 1933, it was established as U.S. National Monument. On October 21, 1999 it became a National Park (Athearn, 1977).
Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park is in south-central Utah. This national park is 100 miles long but quite narrow. It was established in 1971 and is open the whole year and the most popular moths are during May through September (Harris, 1997). In the 1920s, Capitol Reef National Park was called “Wayne Wonderland” by Ephraim P. Pectol and Joseph S. Hickman. The Capitol Reef National Park looks after monoliths, colorful canyons, buttes, and ridges (Harris, 1997).
A section of the Waterpocket Fold close to the Fremont River is Capitol Reef named for a row of white cliffs and domes of Navajo Sandstone (Harris, 1997). In the northern part of the Capitol Reef Waterpocket, fold Native Americans resided close to the continuing Fremont River. They grow agriculture and plant vegetables such as squash and maize. However, the Fremont fields were deserted because of drought and Native American cultures experienced a drastic change in 13[th] century. Paiutes came into this area and named it moki huts (Harris, 1997).
Alan H. Thompson, a surveyor in United States Army traveled the Waterpocket Fold in 1872. A geologist named Clarence Dutton spent many summers studying this area. Journey of Mormons in search of natives reached the high valleys to the west in 1866. Settlers moved into these valleys in the 1870s and make Bicknell, Fremont, Torrey, Lyman, and Loa. The community in 1920s was later left by the people and some buildings were restored by the National Park Service (Harris, 1997).
Crater Lake National Park
Crater Lake National Park can be found in southern Oregon. Crater Lake National Park ranks five as oldest national park in the United States founded in 1902. It is only one in the state of Oregon. It has the caldera of Crater Lake the remains of Mount Mazama (Nathenson, 2007).
The destruction of Mount Mazama was seen by local Native Americans and recorded it as legends. The first whites that saw the lake are Isaac Skeeters, John Wesley Hillman, and Henry Klippel. They named the Deep Blue Lake, the blue lake on June 12, 1853 but the local people preferred the name Crater Lake (Nathenson, 2007).William Gladstone Steel allots his time and money to establish and manage National Park at Crater Lake in 1870. With Clarence Dutton`s help, they prepared a USGS expedition to learn about the lake in 1886 (Nathenson, 2007).
Cuyahoga Valley National Park
Cuyahoga Valley National Park is in Northeast Ohio and has the country landscape along the Cuyahoga River. Established in 1974 as the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area and became national park in 2000. The word Cuyahoga means “crooked river” in Mohawk (Jim, 2002). The historic route of the Ohio and Erie Canal was followed by the Towpath Trail. Ohio was used to be difficult to travel and transportation of crops to markets was almost impossible before the canal was built. When the canal was built from 1825 to1832, it gave a new route from Cleveland to Portsmouth, through Lake Erie and Ohio River. Nowadays, tourist can ride through this route. The park has boats and beavers (Jim, 2002).
Death Valley National Park
A national park in the U.S. states of Nevada and California is the Death Valley National Park located east of the Sierra Nevada. It occupies area between the Great Basin and Mojave deserts. It shields the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and has dunes, salt, valleys, mountains, canyons, and badlands. An International Biosphere Reserve and was declared as largest national park (Kiver and David, 1999).
As early as 7000 BC, Native American groups inhabited the area. The valley gets its name from a group of European-Americans that resided there in 1849 while searching for a shorter way to the gold fields of California. To mine gold and silver, many towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Kiver and David, 1999).
In the 1920s, when resorts were bloomed in Furnace Creek and Stovepipe Wells, tourism blossomed. Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and became a national park in 1994 (Kiver and David, 1999).
On February 11, 1933, President Herbert Hoover declared a national monument around Death Valley. Into the early 1940s, twelve companies worked in Death Valley using Civilian Conservation Corps employees during the Great Depression. They build a total of 76 buildings, set up water and telephone lines, , graded 500 miles (800 km) of roads, , and built barracks. Panamint Range Trails were built to different places, and an adobe laundry, village and trading post were put up for Shoshone Indians (Hal and Miller, 2013).
Monument creation closed the lands to prospecting and mining but reopened by Congressional action at the same year. Open pit and strip mines damaged the landscape when international mining corporations purchase highly visible areas of the national monument. The public protests that follow led to greater protection for all monument and national park areas in the United States (Hal and Miller, 2013).
Denali National Park and Preserve
A national park and preserve located in Interior Alaska, Denali National Park and Preserve centered on Denali (Mount McKinley), the highest mountain in North America. The park covers more than 6 million acres (24,500 km²) and 4,724,735.16 acres (19,120 km²) are federally owned. Its history started when Charles Alexander Sheldon give attention to Dall sheep native to the region and worried about human violation that might threaten the species. He formally requested the people of Alaska and Congress to make a preserve after his visit in 1907-1908 (William, 1991).
On February 26, 1917, the park was declared as Mount McKinley National Park and became an international biosphere reserve in 1976. Moreover, on December 1, 1978, a different Denali National Monument was made known by Jimmy Carter (Norris, 2006).
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is a national park and preserve found in Alaska west of Juneau. On February 25, 1925, President Calvin Coolidge declared the area around Glacier Bay as national monument under the Antiquities Act. It was expanded in 1978 through the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). The enlargement is by 523,000 acres (2116.5 km²) on December 2, 1980. The additional 57,000 acres (230.7 km²) was designated as national preserve to the northwest of the park for the protection of Alsek River and related wildlife and fish habitats while permitting sport hunting (Lee, 2012).
Survey crews found copper and nickel deposit under the Brady Icefield in 1958. They search at nunatak and found mineralized rocks. Newmont Exploration Ltd. proposal took advantage of 1936 legislation and permitted exploitation of mineral in the monument. Newmont declaration has never been resolved, even though no mining activity has been proposed since the 1970s (Catton, 1995).
Glacier Bay became a binational UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. Hoonah and Tlingit Native American organizations have the obligation to manage and protect the area. 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act allowed inclusion of Alaskan public lands for national park. On December 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter proclaimed under the Antiquities Act fifteen National Park Service units in Alaska. It expanded Glacier Bay National Monument. On December 2, 1980, the Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve was established from the national monument (Catton, 1995).
Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve
Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve is the northernmost U.S. national park in Alaska and the second largest with area of 13,238 square miles. It consists of Brooks Range of mountains. On December 1, 1978, it was protected as a U.S. National Monument and through Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, it became a national park and preserve two years later in 1980. Gates of the Arctic Wilderness and Noatak Wilderness Area form the biggest adjoining wilderness in the United States (Marshal, 1956).
People live in the Brooks Range for 12,500 years and the Mesa site gave evidence of their residence. Inupiat people appeared in 1200AD and spread to the Brooks Range. They became the Nunamiut that live unchanged until World War II brought foreigners into Alaska. Discovery of gold in the Klondike brought people to Alaska and allowed it to be explored in 19[th] century. Bob Marshall explored the North Fork of the Koyukuk River and named it Gates of the Arctic. He published his book Arctic Village in 1933 and Olaus Murie proposed the preservation of Alaskan lands (Marshal, 1956).
In 1968, Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall suggested President Lyndon B. Johnson to use the Antiquities Act. This would allow the proclamation of national monument in the Brooks Range and other Alaskan locations however, the president declined. But, by the 1970s the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) encouraged serious assessment of the nature of lands in custody of the federal government. On December 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter, under Antiquities Act, proclaimed the proposed parklands under ANILCA as national monuments and also the Gates of the Arctic National Monument. On December 2, 1980, the Congress passed ANILCA, launching the monument lands as Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (Marshal, 1956).
References
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Athearn, R. (1977). The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. University of Nebraska Press.
Brown, W. (1991) A History of the Denali-Mount McKinley Region, Alaska, National Park Service
Brown, J. (1995). Beatrix: the gardening life of Beatrix Jones Farrand, 1872-1959. Viking Press
Harris, A. and Tuttle, E.(1997). Geology of National Parks: 5[th] ed. Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publishing
Johnson, J. (2002). Jump up Jump up ^: “Generators pay for industrial cleanup”. Waste Recycling News, May 13, 2002
Kiver, E. and Harris, D. (1999). Geology of U.S. Parklands (5[th]). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Lee, R. (2012). The Story of the Antiquities Act. National Park Service Archaeology Program. Catton
Marshall, Robert (1956), Alaska Wilderness, George Marshall ed. University of California Press
Nathenson, M.,. Bacon, C. and Ramsey, D. (2007). “Subaqueous geology and a filling model for Crater Lake, Oregon”. Hydrobiologia:
Norris, Frank. (2006). Crown Jewel of the North:An Administrative History of Denali National Park and Preserve, Volume 2, National Park Service
Prins, H and McBride, B. (2007). Asticou`s Island Domain: Wabanaki Peoples at Mount Desert Island 1500 – 2000. National Park Service, a 2-volume report
Rothman, H. and Miller, C. (2013). Death Valley National Park: A History. University of Nevada Press
Theodore (1995) Land Reborn: A History of Administration and Visitor Use in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, National Park Service