Borderline Personality Disorder Abstract

Borderline personality disorder refers to a mental illness that is characterized by instability in behaviour, moods, as well as interactions. Over the years, the illness has prevailed in most parts of the world and it affects all people regardless of their social status in society. People suffering from this disorder have the tendency to experience some episodes that can be regarded as psychotic. For a long time, this illness was thought of as an illness that has the characteristics of other mental diseases. The name given to the disorder was seen as misleading however, with time, people have come to accept that this is the best term to describe the illness. This paper seeks to examine borderline personality disorder. The paper will focus on the causes of the disorder, symptoms, as well as treatment methods. Moreover, the study will evaluate the diagnosis of the disorder and the various methods that can be applied while diagnosing it.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Patients of borderline personality disorder experience problems when it comes to the regulation of the thoughts and emotions that they harbour. They have the tendency to engage in forms of behaviour that can be regarded as reckless, as well as impulsive. Studies indicate that patients of BPD experience challenges when it comes to relating with other people. There is because they are unstable and this instability is extended to their interactions with family members, friends, and therapists (Krawitz & Jackson, 2008).
Causes of Borderline Personality Disorders
The disorder is caused by multiple factors, which range from biological, psychological to socio-cultural factors. The interactions between these factors can be seen as what precipitates the disorder. Biological factors that cause the disorder are related to functioning of the skin chemicals. For example, the presence of sluggish serotonin increases the prevalence of this disorder. This form of serotonin is a major cause of depression, impulsive behaviour, decline in mood, as well as irritable conditions in the patients. In addition, parts of the brain that manage stress are not well developed in persons suffering from borderline personality disorders as it is the case in other people. Thus, this increases the probability of people suffering from this disorder (Friedel, 2004).
The other notable causes of borderline personality disorder are psychological factors, which increase the prevalence of the disease occurring. For example, when a person is brought in an abusive environment whereby they were neglected by their caregivers, there is increased prevalence of suffering from borderline personality disorder. This emanates from the fact that such experiences can be seen to be the cause of lack of confidence, low self-esteem, and poor psychological skills, which contribute to the illness. Children who are emotionally deprived of good care by parents have the tendency to develop this illness. Another psychological factor that can contribute to this disorder includes sexual abuse. A high percentage of people who suffer from this disorder (approximately 70%) might have experienced sexual abuse during their childhood years (Gunderson & Links, 2008).
Interplay of social and biological beliefs also cause the disorder this implies that both nurture and nature contribute to the illness. The disorder may be inherited from parents. This is the case when a person inherits personality traits, temperament, and aggressive behaviour from parents. The disorder may also be caused by genes that regulate behaviour. Studies indicate that the poor functioning of these genes can be seen as the cause of the disorder. A combination of biological factors and factors related to upbringing of the child increase the prevalence of the disorder. Borderline personality disorder may also be caused by being a victim of a crime, which might have disoriented an individual (Friedel, 2004).
Symptoms and Signs of Borderline Personality Disorder
There are certain symptoms that can be attributed to this disorder. One of the major symptom and sign of the disorder includes reactions that can be classified as extreme. These reactions include depression, experiencing panic, as well as rage. The disorder also leads to strained relationships with friends and family members. The relationships cannot be predicted and they range from extreme love for other people, or expressing a lot of hatred for them. The disorder also contributes to negative perception of the self. As a result, the patient may experience altered opinions, feelings, values, or change the goals that they had set to achieve in the future. For example, students who suffer from this disorder may alter their career choices and opt to take another career path (Krawitz & Jackson, 2008).
Other symptoms of this disorder include engaging in risky behaviours. Such behaviours include binge eating, having unprotected sex, or dangerous driving that can cause accidents. Behaviours of self harm are also notable symptoms of this illness an example of such behaviour includes becoming highly suicidal. Patients of borderline personality disorder also have challenges controlling their temper. As such, they may cause harm to other people (Gunderson & Links, 2008).
Diagnosis and Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder
In most cases, there is a tendency to misdiagnose this disorder. However, with careful evaluation of the client, diagnosis of the illness is possible. Professional psychiatrists can detect BPD in a client by looking at the symptoms, which present themselves when a client visits the therapist. The diagnosis of the illness is based on asking the patient about their medical history, as well as the medical history of their family. This way, it is possible to ascertain whether other family members suffered from mental illnesses that may cause BPD. While diagnosing this illness, it is crucial to be aware of co-occurring illnesses, which may be confused with borderline personality disorder (Paris & Chapman, 2008).
The treatment of BPD can be viewed as challenging. However, with the advancement in psychiatry, the treatment of this disorder has become successful. One of the ways that can be used to treat the illness is through psychotherapy. Offering psycho-social counselling to patients of this illness can go a long way in eliminating some of the symptoms. In this regard, the use of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can help to address the illness. This form of therapy can help alter the moods, emotions, and feelings of the patients. The treatment of BPD is also based on medication. Symptoms of aggression and depression in the patients of BPD can be addressed through medications (Paris & Chapman, 2008).
References
Friedel, R. O. (2004). Borderline personality disorder demystified: An essential guide for understanding and living with BPD. New York: Da Capo Lifelong.
Gunderson, J. G., & Links, P. S. (2008). Borderline personality disorder: A clinical guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub.
Krawitz, R., & Jackson, W. (2008). Borderline personality disorder. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Paris, J., & Chapman, A. (2008). Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Guide to Evidence-Based Practice. New York: Guilford Publications.
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