Annotated bibliography

Begos, K. Pennsylvania fracking study preliminary results released. The
huffington Post Greens. 25 August 2013. Web. 1 December 2013.
Begos reports the findings of a research conducted by the Southwest
Pennsylvania Environmental Health Project in a period of 18 months to
assess the impact of hydraulic fracturing technology on human health.
Although the findings reported in the article indicates that there are
some medical complications among the members of local communities where
fracturing technology is practiced, the effects are reported to be
minimal compared to earlier mining technologies that required combustion
of large quantities of coal. The author reports that hydraulic
fracturing technology has contributed to long lives among the people of
Pennsylvania following the minimized emission of toxic gases. This
article provides useful information for the present research because it
informs much about the views of professional environmentalists who have
the capacity to view the fracturing technology from a historical
perspective. It makes it possible to compare health and environmental
impact of hydraulic fracturing with other mining technologies.
Brown, E., Hartman, K., Borick, C., Rabe, G. and Ivacko, T. The center
for local and urban policy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2012.
The article is a presentation of different views of the stakeholders and
members of public about environmental and health impacts of hydraulic
fracturing technology in the states of Pennsylvania and Michigan. The
study indicates that both the policy makers and members of the public
have different views where some advocate for the use of fracturing
technology on the basis of its economic value while other claim that it
has increased health risks to the local community. The article also
provides an overview of how hydraulic fracturing technology was adopted
in the two states. The article will provided a suitable basis of
discussion of both economic and health impact of hydraulic fracturing
technology in Pennsylvania. In addition, the article informs about
reasons why some people advocate for while others are against the use of
this technology.
Drajem, M. Fracking tied to Pennsylvania water woes by EPA official.
Bloomberg. 29 July. 2013. Web. 1 December 2013.
Drajem analysis the findings of the research conducted by the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on health and environmental impact
of hydraulic fracturing technology in Pennsylvania. The article reports
that the hydraulic fracturing technology affects environment and human
health through the infiltration of gases and chemicals used in the
mining process to the nearby homes and boreholes used as sources of
domestic water. The EPA report provides sufficient evidence that
domestic wells are faulted by the fracturing process. This article
provides useful information about the causes of medical complications
that result from hydraulic fracturing technology. In addition, the
article reveals the reasons for the popular environmental agencies to
oppose the use of hydraulic fracturing technology especially in the
mining sites that are located near residential places and schools.
Levy, M. Fracking wastewater disposal process to be altered in
Pennsylvania. The huffington Post Greens. 19 April 2011. Web. 1 December
Levy presents the opinion of the Department of Environmental Protection
(DEP) in the state of Pennsylvania. The preliminary evaluation conducted
by DEP indicates that the state government is aware of the health and
environmental impacts of the use of hydraulic fracturing technology in
oil and gas mining in Pennsylvania. However, the author indicates that
the state government is divided between economic benefits it get from
the mining activities going on in the state and the need to protect
human health and environment. The DEP advocates for safer disposal of
mining wastes instead of stopping the use of hydraulic fracturing
technology. The article provides useful information for the final paper
because it informs about the views taken by the government given that it
has the responsibility to protect the people of Pennsylvania and sources
funds from the mining operations at the same time.
MacArthur, B. Pennsylvania hydraulic fracturing state review.
Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Department of Environment Protection, 2012.
MacArthur provides a historical perspective of the use of hydraulic
fracturing technology in the state of Pennsylvanian and the impacts it
has caused on environment and human health. Since its initiation,
hydraulic fracturing technology has resulted in economic progress within
the state, but with some negative health and environmental effects being
reported by the state residents. In addition, the author reports some
regulatory measures (such as waste management and public information)
that the government of Pennsylvania has been taking over the years to
reduce the negative impacts. The article will provides the historical
overview of the use of hydraulic fracturing technology in Pennsylvania
and how the state government has been responding to health and
environmental challenges arising from fracturing operations in order to
protect people and preserve the economic value of this type of the
fracturing technology.
McFeeley, M. State hydraulic fracturing disclosure rules and
enforcement. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, 2012. Print.
McFeeley provides an overview of hydraulic fracturing technology with a
focus on how it is operated, chemicals used, and the role of government
in regulating oil and mining operations. Most importantly, the author
identifies the specific chemicals used in the fracturing technology and
is associated with medical complications among the members of the local
community. These chemicals include formaldehyde, lead, mercury, barium,
arsenic, and radium. The author emphasize o the importance of disclosure
in reducing the environmental and health impacts of these chemicals.
This article will provide a significant contribution to the final paper
because it will help in designing the most viable solution that will
address the interests of all the stakeholders who include the members of
the public, policy makers, environmentalists, and miners.
Stemark, M. The relevance of environmental ethics theories for policy
making. Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2002. Print.
Stemark addresses the importance of using environmental ethical theories
in the process of making policies geared towards environmental
protection. The author discusses the different versions of
anthropocentrism as well as nonanthropocentrism theories and the
importance in environmental protection. Stemark aims at identifying the
practical significance of these environmental theories in processes of
policy making and management of environmental issues. This article
provides the proposition of intergenerational anthropocentrism, which
will be utilized in the final paper to formulate a solution that will
address the impact of human activities (mining using fracturing
technology) on human health.